Ottawa, Ottawa [ˈɒtēwɑ], Fr.Ottawa, is the capital of Canada. It is located in the eastern part of Ontario on the banks of the Ottawa River, which borders Ontario and Quebec. Ottawa is the country's fourth largest city and Ontario's second largest city. Together with the Québec-based town of Gatino and a number of other municipalities, Ottawa is part of the National Capital Region.
Ottawa's population reached a million in 2019, with the Ottawa-Gatino agglomeration population, according to the 2016 census, at 1 million,324 thousand. The city administration is carried out by the municipal council headed by the mayor. Jim Watson has been mayor since December 1, 2010.
The town was founded in the 1820s as a camp of soldiers and artisans who built the Rido Canal, and in 1850 it was officially recognized as a city of loggers and loggers. Until 1855, the city was called Bytown after Lt. Col. John Bai, who was in charge of the construction of the Rido Canal. Since December 31, 1857 Ottawa is the capital of the united province of Canada, since 1867 — the capital of the state of Canada. The city was further developed as a transport and industrial center, and in the second half of the 20th century it underwent a major restructuring aimed at improving the urban environment.
At the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century Ottawa, which has become the center of development of high technologies, is sometimes awarded the title "Northern Silicon Valley". As Canada's capital, Ottawa is home to federal authorities and major cultural centers, including leading Canadian museums and the National Art Gallery.
Indigenous tribes and first European settlers
The territory now occupied by Ottawa was inhabited by the Algonkin tribes by the time the Europeans came. The region around the modern Ottawa River, originally part of the Shamplen Sea after the end of the last glacial age, was inhabited by ancient tribes as the sea receded. Six thousand years ago in the valley of the river formed a hunting-gathering culture, judging by archeological excavations, which also actively participated in trade with neighboring peoples. Although archeologists are not ready to speak with certainty about the ethnicity of the speakers of this culture, it is quite similar to the culture of the Algonquins at the time of the arrival of Europeans in America.
After the arrival of French settlers in Canada in the seventeenth century, the Kichissippi River, with its tributaries, represented the main waterway from the St. Lawrence River to the interior of the North American continent and was already central to the trade between indigenous peoples of the region, became the main artery of the mechanic trade, which was based in Montreal Ale. The Algonka tribe of Ottava (ethnonym comes from the Algonka word "ǎdāwe", meaning "trading, exchanging") monopolized the cartridge trade in Kichissipi. Although the monopoly of the tribe lasted only about 30 years, after which it was pushed to the territory south of the Great Lakes, beyond the river and to the north of it is fixed the name Ottawa (this region, which is now part of the province of Quebec, retains the name Ottawa to this day). In 1800, the first white settlers settled on the site where three rivers — Rido, Ottawa and Gatino — merge. A native of Massachusetts, a lesurb Filemon Wright, his relatives and several friends loved the place for permanent residence. They built log houses, sawmill. The village was named Wrightstown (later Hull, now part of Gatino). Wright started hiring and selling timber in 1806, and by 1809, the number of hired timber and carpenters had reached several hundred. Already at the end of the same decade and the beginning of the next decade, the first agricultural settlements on the southern bank of the Ottawa River are emerging; the first farmers, Ira Honiwell, were still in the area of modern Nepal and Braddish Billings in the territory of modern Gloucester. In 1818, more than a dozen families of British soldiers settled in the area where the village of Richmond (in the 1970s included in the municipal boundaries of the city of Gölborn) was later established.
Rido and Baitown Canal
In 1827, between the Ottawa River and Lake Ontario, the construction of the Rido Canal began, the shortest way to connect Montreal with Lake Ontario. The construction of the canal was led by John Bai, after whom the settlement of construction workers was named "Bytown". The construction workers' barracks were located on a hill near the future first locks of the Rido Canal, near the mouth of the Rido and Gatino rivers and the Chadier Waterfall. By 1832, the channel was finished. Bytown was by that time a wooden city with more than 10 thousand inhabitants. The best of the canal's builders, Scottish masonry Thomas McKay, who worked on the first eight locks and was personally awarded for his work, subsequently acquired land east of the Rido River and created a small industrial empire. His 11-room Regency-style mansion in the village of New Edinburgh was subsequently bought out by the government and converted into the Governor General's residence.
After the construction of the Rido Canal, many Irish workers were left unemployed. Unlike the French and British, long-established in the region, who had their homes and businesses, the Irish found themselves in a desperate situation. This was taken advantage of by an Irish-born entrepreneur Peter Eilenwho had hired only Irish companies, fully subordinating the community to their influence. Since 1835, Eilen, led a gang of about 200 men, terrorized the workplaces of Baitown, and in 1837 disrupted elections to the local council of Nepal. Eileen and his friends were called Shiners, and their actions were called the Shiners War. The gang's name probably comes from the distorted French word cheneurs, "cheneurs/oak wood swimmers." The Ottawa Forest Industrialists Association was established in 1836 to counter the violence of the Brilliant, and Eilen felt that his power was coming to an end was one of its first members, and in the spring of 1837 the Brilliant were finally taken under control, although such smaller-scale gang wars continued to erupt until the end In the 1840s, and in 1849, government forces managed to suppress a large-scale rebellion, one of whose leaders was Philemon's son Wright Ragles.
In 1841, Baitown employed 3,000 residents, and by 1850, he had taken over from Witesville, located on the opposite bank, the lead in the Ottawa Valley forest trade. The construction of sawmills using the energy of the Chaudier waterfalls in the 1850s was an important step in the development of the forest industry in the region. In 1850 a permanent local self-government was established in Baitown, and in 1855 the city changed its name to Ottawa.
Capital of Canada
In the mid-19th century, when Upper Canada (Ontario) united with Lower Quebec, the question of the capital of a united province arose. Many major Canadian cities (including Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Kingston) have struggled to gain that status. The problem was compounded by the fact that French Canadians, then almost half of the country's population, strongly objected to the capital's location in the English-speaking region; at the same time, Canada's largest city, Montreal, was unfriendly to the royal authorities, attacked the Governor-General of Canada, Lord Elgin, and in 1849 set fire to the legislature building. The "mobile" capital project, which moves from Toronto to and from Quebec every four years, has proved to be prohibitively expensive. As a result, the question of the permanent capital was referred to Queen Victoria, who in 1857, on the recommendation of colonial officials, issued a decree making Ottawa the capital because of its position on the border of Upper and Lower Canada and the mixed Anglo- and French-speaking population; water and rail links, as well as relative distances from the US border, also played a role, providing less influence in peacetime and less threat to the capital in the event of war. Already in 1859, on a hill near the Ottawa River and the Rido Canal, the construction of a complex of parliament began officially in 1866. The following year, Ottawa became the federal capital of the new Canadian dominion, which includes the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.
By the early 1860s, the new provincial capital connected the Grand Trunk Railway line with the US-Canada rail network. In the 1890s, the Ottawa River hydroelectric power plants, which were initially used mainly for sawmills, began to operate, but there was enough electricity for street lamps and tram lines. The status of the capital and the growing industry led to a rapid growth in the city's population, from less than 8,000 inhabitants in 1851 to 21,500 twenty years later. Already in 1861, almost half of Ottawa's population was employed in industry, and the formation of trade unions began by the end of that decade.
First half of the twentieth century
Towards the end of the century, the Government of Canada was confronted with the fact that the development of a largely working-neighborhood capital was a disappointing experience. In 1899, the Ottawa City Improvement Commission, established by the federal government, was tasked with turning the city into a "North Washington" city. The limited budget of $60,000 made this an impossible task, but the disaster helped. In 1900, Halle (formerly Wrightsville) and the north-west of Ottawa were destroyed by a fire, including the Chaudier Bridge. The fire killed seven people and destroyed more than 3,000 buildings, leaving 15,000 homeless. An international donation of 10 million Canadian dollars was collected for the city's reconstruction.
Ottawa was still recovering as an industrial city. The business center was a tangle of railway tracks. In 1912, near the mouth of the Rido Canal, near Rido Street, the Union Station was opened (its building is currently occupied by the Government Conference Center). In the same year, two of the most famous buildings in Ottawa were opened: the Chateau Lorier Hotel, located directly opposite the station, and the Victoria Memorial Museum (currently the Canadian Museum of Nature).
In February 1916, the city's appearance was changed by fire again: On February 3, the central parliament building caught fire. Victoria's central tower died in fire, its bell, according to legend, collapsed on the ground with the 11th blow of the hours that beat the midnight. Only the northwest wing of the main building and the parliamentary library, whose unusual architectural design originally included the idea of maximum security of books and archives, were not affected. After the fire, the parliament's sessions were moved to the Victoria Memorial Museum. Although Canada was involved in the World War at that time, on September 1, 1916, the cornerstone of a parliamentary building that survived the fire was rebuilt by the Governor-General of Canada, Duke of Connauth. Initially, the new parliament would be built in a year, but the war delayed construction. The first meeting of the Parliament in the new building took place in February 1920, but the construction of a new main tower, the Peace Tower, continued for many years.
In 1918, Ottawa, like almost the whole world, was gripped by a pandemic flu brought by the soldiers who had returned from the front. Working neighborhoods, with their crowded population, lack of modern sewerage, and proximity to railway stations—the centers of the spread of the disease between cities—have become the first places in the city where the sick have appeared, and have suffered the most. The work neighborhoods adjacent to railway depots and train stations account for a disproportionately high share of the total 440 flu deaths in Ottawa in October 1918. In total, at least 520 people died of Spanish flu in Ottawa, and in total, about 50 thousand in Canada.
During the Second World War, a Dutch royal family lived in Ottawa, and a sister of the future Queen Juliana was born in the City Hospital. In memory of those events, the Netherlands annually gives Ottawa 1 million tulip bulbs for the Tulip Festival, which takes place in May (the time of the festival is not strictly limited and is tied to the period of tulip bloom and weather conditions).
In September 1945, just a few days after the end of World War II, an event took place in Ottawa, which was one of the first steps towards the soon-to-begin Cold War. The encryption operator of the Soviet embassy, Igor Guzenko, gave the Canadian authorities evidence that the USSR, a Canadian ally in World War II, had launched a spy network in Canada involving several ministries, the Parliament and a joint British-Canadian nuclear project. In February 1946, these circumstances were publicized and a crown investigative commission was appointed with virtually unlimited powers, raising concerns about the fundamental rights of civil society. Canadians’ attitudes toward the Soviet Union have long changed for the worse.
Reconstruction and expansion (from the 1950s to the present)
Ottawa remained an industrial hub and a major transport hub throughout the first half of the 20th century. By the end of the Second World War, more than a hundred trains were arriving daily, and there were at least 150 level crossings in the city. By the middle of the century, the question of a fundamental reconstruction of the city was as acute as it was 50 years ago.
The French town-builder Jacques Grebé has made a significant contribution to the restructuring of the Canadian capital. Grebe was invited to Canada on the eve of World War II to construct the National Military Memorial and the Confederation Square near Parliament, but the new war delayed these plans. In 1950 Grebe presented to Canadian customers a plan for large-scale restructuring of Ottawa. The plan included the elimination of slums, the relocation of railway lines and the establishment of parks and the so-called "Green Belt" that spans the city perimeter. It was also planned to acquire land on the Quebec side of the river to expand the area of Gatino Park.
To implement the Grebe Plan, the area of the National Capital Region was expanded to 2,900 km², including 72 villages in Ontario and Quebec. The Federal District Commission, which was responsible for the planning of Ottawa and replaced the Commission for the Improvement in 1927, was transformed into a National Capital Commission with expanded powers. In order to cope with the traffic load, a multi-lane high-speed highway No. 417-Queensway was built on the site of the main railway line.
In the 1950s, a new National Library was built, unburdening the crowded parliamentary library, rebuilt the historic western wing of parliament, and demolished the old Supreme Court building. By the centennial of the creation of the Canadian Confederation, a new National Center for the Arts had been built. State institutions were first dispersed outside the Parliamentary Hill on the Ontario bank of the Ottawa River (primarily the Sussex Drive, where the Prime Minister's residence is located, the Public Archive - later the Canadian Military Museum - and the mint, as well as the US embassy), and then the wooden archive Hall's nascent development was demolished, giving way to multi-story government buildings as part of an effort to promote bilingualism in government offices.
Population composition has changed: Workers were replaced by clerks, and as high-tech workers began to squeeze. With the opening of such large enterprises as Mitel, Corel, Cognos, Newbridge and JDS Uniphase, the image of the "Northern Silicon Valley" was established behind Ottawa and the neighboring Kanata. The result of the development of ties with major technology centers in the United States was the modernization and expansion of Ottawa International Airport, which was completed in 2008. Since Canada joined the G-7 of the world's most advanced economies in 1976, Ottawa has repeatedly hosted international economic and political forums, meetings of G-7 ministers and speakers, and the G-20, including the G-7 summit in 19 81, held in the Canadian capital and Montebello resort in Quebec. There, the so-called Ottawa Treaty on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines was signed.
The city's reconstruction was accompanied by its continuous expansion. Throughout its history, Ottawa has continuously absorbed villages and townships around it. In 1965, it was merged with the neighboring district of Carlton into the municipality of Ottawa-Carlton. In 2001, the amalgamation of 11 settlements was held in the same municipality (see Administrative Division), and Ottawa found its modern borders.
Ottawa is located in the southeastern part of Canada's Ontario province, on its border with Quebec province, on the banks of the river of the same name, as well as the River Rido and the Rido Canal, where the city center is located at the confluence with the Ottawa River. On the northern bank of the Ottawa River is the city of Gatino, which is included with Ottawa in the single urban agglomeration — the National Capital Region. Ottawa is located in low-lying flat terrain, high in the area of the international airport named after. McDonald, Cartier, is 114 m, and the city's highest peak is 166 m above sea level. The nearest mountain range is Appalachia. Ottawa, like the entire eastern province of Ontario and Québec, is in the North American Eastern time zone, behind world coordinated time by five hours in the winter and four hours in the summer.
Ottawa, a single census area, is administratively divided into 23 electoral districts. The city is also administratively divided into postal regions and police districts.
Until 2001, Ottawa was only a small part of modern territory. In 2001, 10 municipalities joined it: Vanye, Gloucester, Golborn, Cumberland, Kanata, Nepin, Osgood, Rido, Rockliffe Park and West Carlton. Currently, the division of the city into historical areas is actively used by real estate companies, but the administration in Ottawa is completely centralized, local councils of former townships are eliminated and all city power is concentrated in the city administration.
Local community centers (community centres) are voluntary organizations that provide community interaction and a range of social services; These centers are not the authorities, and the city's residents have the right to apply to any of them, not just the place of residence. The number of community centers is roughly the same, but not the same as the number of historical areas: The Ottawa Public Centers Coalition includes 14 such organizations, which deal with some aspects of health and resource allocation.
Ottawa is part of Canada's National Capital Region, located partly in Ontario and partly in Quebec. On the Quebec side of the Ottawa River, the National Capital Region includes the former towns of Gatino, Hall and Eilmer and two regional councils of the Ottawa region; all of them, almost simultaneously with the expansion of the right-bank Ottawa, became part of the single city of Gatino. The city of Gatino itself is often viewed (including by Statistics Canada) as part of the Ottawa-Gatino urban agglomeration. Some of Ottawa and Gatino's urban properties and other objects, as a result of their inclusion in the National Capital Region, are not under municipal control, but under the authority of the National Capital Commission, which is accountable to the federal parliament.
Geology and Soils
The southern bank of the Ottawa River, where the city is located, is mainly complicated by flat-lying Ordovic and Cambrian dolomites and limestone. The Sandy Hill area, adjacent to the University of Ottawa, is on a clay remains rising above the ancient bottom of the Ottawa River. The clay shale is, along with limestone, the dominant rock in the northeastern and eastern parts of the city. The Nepin and part of Kanata districts are on Cambrian and Ordovic sandstone, which serve as a building stone. In the western part of the city, along the slope of the Ottawa River, there are doCambrian metamorphic rocks — quartzites and crystallized limestone — as well as granites and gnaises. In the same area there is the so-called Karpskaya row, where a half-meter layer of shelved morena remains.
Canada is mostly located on a tectonic-resistant North American plate, and seismic activity in its eastern part is quite low. Ottawa is no exception: it belongs to the Western Québec seismic zone, covering, in particular, the region along the Ottawa River valley from Montreal to Temiscaming, where earthquakes are not particularly frequent and severe, rarely reaching up to five points when there is a real threat of damage to buildings and infrastructure. In the 20th century, there were two such earthquakes in the region, with epicenteres in Temiskaming (1935) and in Cornwall in Eastern Ontario (1944). In 2000, Ottawa was hit by a 5.2-magnitude earthquake with an epicenter north of North Bay, and in 2010, a five-point earthquake with an epicenter in Quebec, about 50 km north of the Canadian capital.
The retreat of the glaciers and the further retreat of the Shamplen sea have formed modern soils in the Ottawa region. They are mainly clay soils and glacial deposits of the Wisconsin era, with high content of limestone and dolomite. In the eastern part of the city, especially in the West Carlton area, glacial deposits with the predominance of sandstone and in the south - clay shale occur. Where sea waters receded fastest, the surface layer of sand was generally less than a meter thick. The topmost soil is the late organic sediment of the rivers, the most powerful of which are located in the areas of Golborn, Rido, Osguda and Cumberland.
Ottawa is located in the ecological zone of flat mixed forests, but near it passes the northern boundary of the ecosphere of the Ontario Shield. This proximity provides the city with a biodiversity formed by species characteristic of both ecological zones. This diversity is supported by the fact that old areas of Ottawa are surrounded by the so-called Green Belt, which consists of forest and agricultural land (including field expertise). The belt was provided by the general development plan of the city, which was developed in the 1960s by architect Jacques Grebe, and performs a number of environmental tasks, including carbon dioxide sequestration, filtration of ground and surface waters, control of soil erosion and flooding. The green belt includes six protected natural areas (conservation areas): Greens Creek, Pine Grove, Southern-Pharm and Pinis Forest, Stony Swamp, Shirlis Bay and Mer Blø. The last three territories are wetlands, Mer Blø being one of the region's unusual sub-Arctic ecosystems of sphagne wetlands and has the status of wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. In addition to natural protected areas, the Green Belt also contains a number of protected cultural heritage sites: Log-Pharm pioneer house of the mid-19th century, the ruins of the 19th-century lime kiln in Stony-Swamp, the remains of the Karlsbad-Springs water clinic (a provincial heritage site) and the Blood Gateway ec Rapids on the Rido Canal (1832).
18% of the area of the Green Belt (3,500 hectares) is occupied by forests. Since its inception, 3.6 million trees have been planted in the Green Belt, covering an area of 800 hectares, including some of the agricultural land that did not produce high yields. Published in 2005, the list of plants found in the Ottawa City includes 1,569 names, including species, subspecies and hybrids. Of these, 1,014 are considered indigenous to the region. In gardening, elm, ginkgo, gledicia, oak, wedge, lipa are widely used. The two imported species, the riverine and the piercing clenes, are cultivated widely enough to compete with native species, thanks to their decorative appearance.
Ottawa's green belt provides a habitat for sedentary and migratory species. The most common animals in the urban landscape are red and carolina protein (gray and black), forest drum, rabbits - American white and Rusak (the latter is not a native species), eastern burunduk, on the outskirts (in the zone of the Green Belt and more) ) — skunk, leopard, raccoon, Canadian beaver, occasionally baribal and Canadian lynx; There are also separate reports of meetings with Pumami and the Eastern Wolf. Atlas of birds that produce chicks in Ottawa includes 182 species, of which 161 are confirmed. Among the birds in the city, the most common are the treacherous tread, squat, yellow-horned singer, sizzy pigeon, crying mountain, singing zonotrihia, and red-shouldered black corpial; In recent years, red cardinal, Mexican lentil and American raven have been more frequent. In numerous parks of Ottawa live Canadian barracks, hook, swan-chipun, chill-yellow, and imported black swan.
Ottawa's municipal borders contain about 50 endangered species. Although some of these species have not been known for years, others are common, such as the smoky needle-tail and sapsan, which nest even in the city center. Other common species in need of protection include gray walnut (infested with fungal diseases), rice poultry and kaiman turtle. At the same time, in the Ottawa region, there has been a proliferation of alien invasive species that take their place in the current environmental system. These include plants such as garlic medicinal, zinanhumus, rurus colossy, susak and two kinds of crust — breakable and laxative. One of the invasive species of animals is the river driessen, the small shellfish that admired the reservoirs in the Ottawa region.
The environmental situation in Ottawa, which until the 1960s was characterized by a concentration of industry and rail transport, has been highly appreciated in recent years. In a 2010 Mercer research center report that includes environmental data for 221 cities around the world, Ottawa shared third place with Helsinki, skipping only Honolulu and another Canadian city, Calgary. Still, the annual discharge of sewage into the Ottawa River during periods of heavy rain remains unresolved; Ecology Ottawa, an independent agency, recommends that this problem be addressed by building huge underground reservoirs to collect wastewater.
Ottawa is located at the intersection of Ontario's two climatic regions, the Eastern Districts and the Renfra (the first being somewhat warmer and much more humid). The climate is moderate continental, with hot summer and cold winter. According to David Phillips, a climatologist at Canada's Department of the Environment, Ottawa is the world's hottest capital and the third coldest. The average temperature of January is -11°C, July 20.3°C. Record high temperature of 37.8°C (August 1944), record low temperature near Ottawa International Airport -36.1°C (February 1943); The Canadian Department of Agriculture has a temperature of -38.9°C. The annual rainfall rate is 943 mm per year, of which 732 mm is rain. The average rate of snow fall per year is 235.7 cm, the most snowy month is December (on average 57 cm of snow), but the record snow (over 40 cm of snow per day) was recorded in February 1947. The prevailing winds are south and west.
|Absolute maximum, °C||32.0||12.4||26.7||31.1||32.8||36.1||36.7||37.8||35.0||27.8||23.9||16.3||37.8|
|Average maximum, °C||-6.1||-4.1||2.2||10.8||19.1||23.8||26.5||24.9||19.5||12.5||4.8||-3||10.9|
|Average temperature, °C||-10.8||-8.7||-2.5||5.7||13.4||18.3||20.9||19.5||14.3||7.8||1.0||-7.1||6.0|
|Medium minimum, °C||-15.3||-13.3||-7.1||0.6||7.7||12.7||15.4||14.1||9.1||3.0||-2.8||-11.1||1.1|
|Absolute minimum, °C||-35.6||-36.1||-30.6||-16.7||-5.6||-0.1||5.0||2.6||-3||-7.8||-21.7||-34.4||-36.1|
|Precipitation rate, mm||70.2||58.9||73.9||72.4||79.0||85.0||90.6||87.1||85.3||79.4||80.1||81.5||943.5|
|Source: Canada Environment Ministry|
In January 1998, Ottawa, along with much of the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and the North-East of the United States, suffered from a catastrophic hololade that severely damaged electricity transmission lines and disrupted energy supply in the region. Ottawa recorded 67.6mm of ice rain, most of which fell during the first 24 hours. During the second half of the 2010s, the city was hit several times by climate-related disasters. In the spring of 2017 and spring of 2019, many areas of Ottawa, Gatino and the surrounding area were flooded by a sprawling river, and in the autumn of 2018 tornadoes took place across the city; These events have led city authorities to pay more attention to upgrading and improving infrastructure in a changing climate.
The coat of arms of Ottawa was officially approved in September 1954 and has been used since 1 January 1955. The wavy blue-white cross, which divides the Old French shield into white quarters, symbolizes the Ottawa River and its two largest tributaries, the Rido and Gatino rivers, whose merger defined the city's future. The cross also symbolizes the feat of Christian missionaries who brought a new religion to the local tribes. The royal crown in the upper right field stands for Queen Victoria, the red maple leaf in the lower left quarter stands for Canada. Two empty white fields represent the greatness that remains to be achieved. On the red field of the head of the shield on the right cross oars and two arrows — a symbol of the Indian tribe of Ottava, historical inhabitants of the region; in the center of astrolabe, the symbol Samuel de Champlin, the first governor of French colonies in North America; and a brick, a shovel and a grenade on the left, symbolizing the construction manager of the canal, Rido John Bai.
The burel above the shield is painted in the main colors of the coat of arms — white and blue, and the hatchery depicts a pine with cones — a symbol of the sloping forest, the main wealth of the Ottawa River valley. On the machine gun there is a gold disk with oak in the center — the seal of Baitown. The motto in Canada's two public languages is "Advance Ottawa en Avant," a modification of the city's old motto. The shield is supported by two billboards, a mid-19th-century lumberjack and a full-fledged civil service regiment employee, symbolizing Ottawa's position as the seat of the Governor-General of Canada and numerous government officials.
The modern flag of Ottawa was adopted in 2001, after merging with other municipalities. It is a towel made of vertical blue and green stripes with a stylized "O" on their border. The stylized "O" in the center of the flag symbolizes the role of Ottawa as the capital of Canada. On the left, her unclosed circle ends with three vertical ribbons resembling a maple leaf (the central element of the Canadian flag) and the Parliament building. Three ribbons symbolize unity, harmony and cooperation for a common purpose. The blue color in the flag symbolizes Ottawa's rivers and canals, and the green color represents its many green areas.
On October 24, 2001, a tulip was declared the official flower of Ottawa. The historical connection between tulips and Ottawa dates back to the years of World War II, when the royal family of the occupied Netherlands found refuge in Canada. Margrit, daughter of the future Queen Juliana, was born in one of the Ottoman hospitals in 1943. After the war, in the autumn of 1945, Ottawa received 100,000 Tulip bulbs as a gift from Princess Juliana, and since 1953 a tulip festival has been held in the city to commemorate this event (see Festivals).
According to the 2016 census, Ottawa ranked fourth among Canada's cities by population, behind Toronto, Montreal, and Calgary and ahead of Edmonton, Winnipeg, and Vancouver. Ottawa is the second most populous city in Ontario. Ottawa's population, which was 44,000 in the 1891 census, exceeded 930,000 in 2016 (including those bordered on municipal borders in 2001), and in mid-2019 it was reported that the city's inhabitants have reached a million. In 2016, the population of the Ottawa-Gatino urban agglomeration exceeded 1.3 million people. The average age of the Ottawa population was 39.2 years, according to the 2011 census; 16.8 per cent of the population was under 15 years of age and 13.2 per cent were under 65 years of age and over.
|Ottawa population growth (thousands)|
|Historical Borders |
|Today's Limits |
Ottawa-Hull / Ottawa-Hatino
Ontario population on OntarioGen Web
Population growth, 1901-2006, on the official website of Ottawa City Hall
Ottawa on the 2011 census website
Ottawa on the 2016 census website
Canadian Population Censuses
Education, employment and average income
The concentration of government offices and high-tech enterprises in the city has led the Ottawa population to have one of the highest levels of education in Canada. In the 2006 census, 38.3% of the population aged 25-64 had a university education at least the first degree (by comparison, in the province of Ontario as a whole, only 24% of those with a higher education were in this age group). The average household income in Ottawa in 2006 was 84.5 thousand Canadian dollars (on the average for Ontario - 69.2 thousand). The majority of the population worked in trade and other services, while workers in industry, agriculture and construction together accounted for less than 10% of the total employed population of Ottawa. At the beginning of 2018, the unemployment rate among the working-age population of the National Capital Region was 5.2% (5.9% in Canada as a whole).
Ethnic and religious composition of the population
During the first 150 years of its existence, about half of its population was Catholic (roughly equal in proportion to the French and Irish population, who were predominantly Lower City in the center and the eastern outskirts), and the other half was English Protestants (who settled in the Upper City in the center and in the southern and western parts of the district of Carlton) . Already in the mid-19th century, Ottawa played the role of the main center of Francophone Ontario and the site of early linguistic friction between the Anglo- and French-speaking populations of Canada. Small German, Italian and Jewish communities formed at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. During the interwar period, Lowertown was considered a "Jewish" region of Ottawa, and later lost that role (see the Jewish Community of Ottawa).
After the Second World War, the city was re-populated by the Arab community (mainly Lebanese) and, later, by the East African communities. The two most famous areas of immigrant concentration are Little Italy around Preston Street (unofficially known as Corso Italia - "Italian Street"), Gladstone Avenue (informally Via Marconi) and St. Anthony's Church in Bout Street and Chinatown along West Somerset Street have now maintained a more cultural identity as tourist destinations than as ethnic enclaves. Thus, in the first half of the XX century immigrants from Ireland, Poland and Ukraine started to settle in Little Italy, in the beginning of the XXI century in the district school on Saturdays there are classes in North Chinese and Vietnamese, and on Preston Street Italian restaurants are adjacent to Korean, Indian and Turkish. In China Town, Thai, Vietnamese, Lebanese and Philippine restaurants and shops are added to the list.
In recent decades, Ottawa has seen a rapid increase in the percentage of residents belonging to visible ethnic minorities (mostly Blacks and Asians). From a linguistic point of view, English counts 65% of the city's population as the first language, French - 15%, and other languages - 18%.
The city has a policy friendly to immigrants. First aid and information are provided to new arrivals at Service Canada, one of the centers of which is located in Elgin Street City Hall, where social insurance (SIN) documents and health insurance are delivered. They can then turn to one of the many immigration services (public organizations subsidized by the Ontario government), such as the LASI World Skills YMCA-YWCA, Catholic Immigration Center, Ottawa Community Immigrant Services Organization, Lebanese and Arab Social Services Agency of Ottawa, among others. Although a number of these organizations contain the words "Catholic", "Christian", "Arabic", "French", etc., in the title, they actually provide services to new arrivals regardless of religion or nationality, which is a prerequisite for granting them government subsidies for their activities. Information on the various institutions of the city, courses, clubs, schools, etc. is available at the community centers (community centres).
Ottawa is a predominantly Christian city, the center of Ottawa's Roman Catholic archdiocese. The Anglican Diocese is also located here. Although the majority of believers in Ottawa are Catholicist or one version of Protestantism, a large part of the population is of different religions. The last time the Canadian census questionnaire included the question of religious affiliation (2001), about 14 % of the city's believers were from religions other than Catholicism and Protestantism. Islam (more than 6%) and Orthodoxy (about 2.5%) were the most popular of these other faiths. Ottawa is the center of one of the dioceses of the Antioch Orthodox Church in North America.
According to the 2016 census, 6,150 Ottawa residents defined Russian as their native language.
Famous natives and residents
The Ottawa Tourism Department website lists five Ottawa residents whose "talents are known to millions". This list includes:
- Jeremy Gara is an Arcade Fire indie rock group drummer who also won the 2010 Grammy for the best album
- Alanis Morissett is a Ottawa-born rock singer and actress, seven-year Grammy laureate
- Matthew Perry is an actor, a native of Massachusetts, who grew up in Ottawa and is known for his roles in "Friends" and "Ron Clark's Story" and "Nine Yards"
- Brendan Frazer, an actor who lived most of his childhood in Ottawa and was famous for his roles in "Mumia" and his sequences, as well as in the film "Cobra Blow"
- Margaret Atwood is a Ottawa-born prose and poet, Buckerowan Laureate for the novel "The Blind Killer"
The lists of Ottawa's Hall of Sports, which has been located in the City Hall building since 2011, include about 250 names, including both famous Ottawa Senators and Ottawa Raf Ryders players and other sports . The names of famous residents of the city in other spheres are immortalized, in particular in the lists of the Hall of Fame of music of country and on the Square of fame of the Ottawa Chamber of Commerce.
Jurisdiction in Ottawa and the surrounding region is one of Canada's most complex issues, even after 11 localities were merged into one in 2001, with a common municipal government. Through the Ottawa-Gatino agglomeration, the border between the provinces runs, and on the Quebec side, a number of authorities co-exist, including individual municipalities and the two regional councils of the Ottawa region. Meanwhile, the Quebec government's regional nationalism prevents the establishment of overly strong links between the Quebec local authorities and the Ottawa federal or municipal government.
In Ottawa itself, there is a division of jurisdiction between the federal government (represented by the National Capital Commission) and the local authorities, whose total budget in recent decades exceeds that of the National Capital Commission. The federal government, the largest land and property owner in Ottawa, is exempt from municipal taxes (instead of which it allocates funds to the municipality in the form of grants) and compliance with municipal laws. The federal government's responsibilities to the Ottawa municipal authorities have been a subject of constant debate for more than a century.
Federal authorities in Ottawa
Federal authorities in Ottawa, focused primarily on Parliamentary Hill, the Tannis-Pescher area, and along the Sussex drive, include:
- Parliament of Canada
- Supreme Court of Canada
- Senate of Canada
- Residence of the Prime Minister of Canada
- Langeven Corps (Prime Minister's Office)
- Federal ministries
- Canadian Tax Agency
- Bank of Canada
- Royal Canadian mint
- Library and Archive of Canada
In Ottawa, the Sassex drive also houses the Rido Hall, the official residence of the British monarch in Canada, and in his absence, the Governor General of Canada. Ottawa is home to many foreign embassies in Canada.
Ontario, which is the home of Ottawa (not including the Quebec part of the National Capital Region), is generally located in the provincial capital of Toronto.
The Ottawa City Council is composed of a mayor elected by the general vote of the city's residents and 23 council members, each representing a separate electoral district. City council elections are held every four years; the most recent municipal elections took place in 2010, ending with the victory of Liberal Party candidate Jim Watson in the mayoral contest.
General sessions of the city council take place twice a month (except for March, July, August and December, when the general meeting takes place once a month). The official days of the sessions are the second and fourth Wednesday of the month, but the sessions may last for several days. In the rest of the time, city affairs are handled by standing committees composed solely of members of the city council. There are 16 advisory groups within the municipality, which are responsible for making recommendations on specific, strictly defined urban governance issues. The groups are composed of volunteers, who are approved by the City Council.
Ottawa has the headquarters of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, which is under federal command. Also in Ottawa, in the Rockliffe Park area, there are stables of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, which contain horses currently used for ceremonies and parades.
The Ottawa Police Service is an independent service that collaborates but is not subordinate to the provincial police of Ontario. The Ottawa Police Service was established as the Ottawa-Carlton regional police service in 1995 and subsequently extended its jurisdiction to the townships united in 2001 with Ottawa. The budget of the service in 2011 amounted to 237 million dollars. The functions of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the local police are divided by law. There are also cooperation agreements with the Québec Police, in particular through Operation INTERSECT.
The gross product of Ottawa-Gatino agglomeration (within its modern borders) increased from 28.8 billion Canadian dollars to 46.4 billion (at the 2002 dollar rate) between 1987 and 2008. During this period, the annual growth in gross product was from -0.8 per cent in 1991 to 7.6 per cent in 1999. Since 1997, the increase has been consistently positive, usually below 2% per year.
In 2012, Ottawa's urban budget was $2.5 billion, of which $850.8 million was invested. The 2013 project, approved on February 27 of this year, provided for an urban budget of $2.83 billion, of which $2.63 billion was an investment budget. In comparison, in 2002, the first year after the unification of municipalities in the modern borders of Ottawa, the total budget was $1.7 billion, of which 515 million was investment budget.
Employment and standard of living
The largest employers in Ottawa are the federal government and Ottawa City Hospital (more than 10,000 employees), Ottawa-Carlton School Authority, Ottawa Municipality and Ottawa University (more than 5,000 employees). Among the largest employers are the two largest universities in the city, and among private and cooperative enterprises in 2006 were the municipal transport company OC Transpo, the telecommunications giant Bell Canada, the supermarket network Loblaws and the then-collapsed manufacturer of telecommunications equipment Nortel Networks (more than 2,000 employees per organization). In the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, the main sector of the city's economy was the civil administration, where about 130 thousand people were employed. The second largest sector was trade and the third was health.
The average annual income for the Ottava family was $84,500 in 2006, markedly above the average income for Ontario, and the unemployment rate remains steadily low (6% in mid-2012, 1.2% lower than the national average). Yet Ottawa has the lowest cost of living of all Canada's largest cities, and, of the world's largest cities, it ranks at the beginning of the second century. In 2011, Ottawa was one of the six capitals on the list of the 15 best-to-live cities in the world, with a low cost of living compared to most cities on the list.
Although agriculture is more important in Ottawa than in any other major Canadian city, and Ottawa itself is the only capital in the world with a functioning farm at its center (Central Experimental Farm), other sectors of the capital economy are at the core of the economy.
In Ottawa, enterprises of electronic, instrument-building, pulp and paper, and printing industry are represented. Canada's capital is often called the "Northern Silicon Valley"; There were created such giants of electronic industry as Mitel, Nortel, Corel, Cognos and JDS Uniphase. Over the past decade, despite the collapse and sale to foreign investors of a number of large and medium-sized high-tech companies and a marked decline in the share of high-tech enterprises in Canadian exchange indices, the total number of such enterprises in the Ottawa region has quadrupled; Shopify, an e-commerce program developer with 25,000 companies buying products, is one of the new companies.
In the middle of the first decade of the twenty-first century, more than 80,000 people were engaged in trade in Ottawa. There are about 70 major shopping centers in the National Capital Region. The biggest are the Rideau Center in the center of Ottawa, Bayshore Shopping Center Western and St. Laurent Shopping Center in the eastern part of it. Several smaller shopping centers are unusual in their selection of goods and services. Such places include the World Exchange Plaza, 240 Sparks and Place De Ville downtown and Place du Center in Halle.
In addition to the shopping centers themselves, there are a number of trading districts. The city’s attraction is the Bayward market in the historic part of Ottawa. The city's trading arteries are Sparks Street (major trendy shops), Bank Street (a large number of cafes and small shops), Elgin Street, West Wellington Street, West Somerset Street (China-ta) ), Rido Street.
Local television programs are mostly broadcast by Rogers in the ontario part of the city and Laurentian Cable in Halle. Ottawa hosts the offices of the bilingual national channel Canadian Public Affairs Channel and the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network and Inuit Broadcasting Corporation. However, most of the television programs are produced outside Ottawa or even outside Canada by transnational media corporations.
Ottawa is one of Canada's top Internet cities: about 60% of ottoman families are connected to the Internet. The city has numerous Internet service providers, with varying coverage. Carlton University is home to one of the largest Freenet operators in Canada. Cellular telephony services are mainly provided by three major national-level companies: Rogers, Bell and Telus. Rogers is a virtual monopoly on the cable television market in the Canadian capital, serving 85 % of the houses where cable television is conducted, and Bell, along with another company, Shaw Direct, controls the satellite TV market.
On average, one family in Ottawa uses 250 liters of water per day. About 10% of families in Ottawa use well water. Water is delivered to the rest of the city's homes by municipal infrastructure from the Ottawa River. The Municipality also carries out drainage and regular collection of garbage from houses.
Hydro Ottawa, the city's largest electricity supplier, is Ontario's third-largest municipal electricity company serving more than 300,000 homes. The city mainly receives electricity from the Darlington nuclear power plant (more than 50%) and the Darlington hydroelectric power plant. R. H. Saunders on the St. Lawrence River.
Natural gas is the main source of home heating in Ottawa. Enbridge, Canada's largest oil and gas transportation firm, was the sole supplier of natural gas to Ottawa until the end of 1999. Currently, the company, which serves about two million private customers, businesses and organizations in Ontario, still controls the pipeline infrastructure, but gas can be purchased directly from it and from smaller independent suppliers.
From 1891 to 1959, Ottawa had a tram network. It was in Ottawa that for the first time in Canada (and perhaps in the world) electric heating cars were launched. In 1921, every Ottawa resident made an average of 336 tram trips per year, at a rate of ten cents per three tickets. However, trams in Ottawa have not been able to compete with the growing cars. By 1959, the trolleybus line in operation in the 50s was also dismantled.
Modern public transport in Ottawa is provided by buses and the light rail O-Train. The first O-Train line, operating since 2001, runs from north to south, connecting Greenboro and Bayview. The second stage, which connects the city center with the eastern districts, was built since 2013 and was launched in September 2019. Buses and O-Train are operated by OC Transpo, a Ottawa municipal transport company established in 1973 to replace the Ottawa Transport Commission, which has been in operation since 1947. All vehicles of this company have a distinctive red with white color. It is possible to transfer from bus to train and vice versa on transit ticket. The Ottawa bus route system is partially integrated with the Gatino bus network. Special transit tickets are available for routes serving both cities. The percentage of people using public transport has been increasing since 1996 and in 2005, every Ottawa resident used public transport on average 100 times a year.
Construction of the next line of the light rail line (24 stations with a total length of 44 km) began in 2019. The city plans to increase the percentage of city residents using public transport from 23% to 30% by 2031.
Several taxi companies operate in the city. The license cost per car can exceed 100 000 dollars. Private transport is prohibited, except in rural areas, which are part of municipal borders, where this method of work is allowed in addition to the basic occupation.
The Ottawa School Transport Authority, a consortium established in 2007 by the Ottawa-Carlton School Authority and the Catholic School Authority, provides school and school services. School transport management is linked to contracts with a number of private bus companies that carry schoolchildren directly. School buses, unlike ordinary public transport, are painted in the traditional yellow and black color of North America.
According to 2005 data, in the morning peak, 62% of Ottawa's residents were traveling by their own cars, while 21% used public transport, 9% walked, 2% preferred bicycles and 6% used other means of transportation. Although the percentage of passengers in public transport has been increasing steadily since 1996, the number of private cars per family increased by 10% between 1995 and 2005.
From west to east, the Quinsouey Motorway (Transkanad Motorway 417-174) runs through Ottawa. In the western part of the city, the 416 motorway (also known as the Veterans' Memorial Highway) enters the city. In total, the length of roads within municipal borders is more than 6,000 km, of which 1,600 km are central highways and 4,600 streets, access roads and auxiliary roads. The city administration provides motorists with about 2800 parking places and about 3800 paid parking places on the streets. Another 5,400 parking places are available at the main OC Transpo terminals (the "park and ride by bus" system - Park and ride).
The high utilization of existing urban roads and the projected increase in the volume of motor vehicles have led to the planned expansion of the road system in Ottawa. By 2031, it is planned to open new bridges across the Ottawa River, connecting Ottawa and Gatino, in particular to unload heavy trucks from the central King Edward Avenue and the Macdonalda-Cartier bridge.
Rail and long-distance bus service
Until the 1960s, Ottawa's main railway station, Union Station, was located in the city center, near the Parliament. During the general reconstruction of Ottawa, the center of Ottawa has been cleared of railway tracks, and the Colonel Bai's highway has now been erected along the Rido Canal.
Built in 1966 by architect John Parkin, the modern Ottawa Railway Station is located in a triangle between Terminal Avenue, Belfast Road and Trumble Road, four kilometers from the city center. The rail lines run parallel to the 417 motorway. The station serves trains from VIA Rail, the Canadian National Railway and the Canadian Pacific (CP), as well as buses from some airlines. The station was a pioneering building and received the Massie Medal in 1967 (now the Governor General's Award in Architecture), and in 2000 was included by the Royal Institute of Architecture of Canada in the list of 500 best architectural constructions in the history of Canada.
Ottawa Central Bus Station is located at the intersection of Kent Street and the Quinsuey Motorway. Receives and sends intercity buses to Montreal, Toronto and other cities. The bus station is mainly operated by Greyhound Canada (including New York and Syracuse) and its subsidiary Québec Voyageur.
MacDonald-Cartier International Airport, which has been in operation since 1938 (international status awarded in 1964), is located 10 km south of the center of Ottawa. It was previously known as CFB Ottawa South (1972 until the mid-1990s) / CFB Uplands (1942 until the mid-1990s). The new passenger terminal of the airport opened in 2003. In 2011, McDonald-Cartier Airport received more than 4.5 million passengers, more than a million of them on international flights (including the United States). This year, the Ottawa airport was ranked first in the world in passenger surveys, serving between two and five million passengers a year.
In addition, there are a number of small airports in various parts of Ottawa and the National Capital Region, two of which (Carpe and Gatino) are capable of receiving not only private but also small commercial aircraft. Rockliffe Airport provides space for the Canadian Air and Space Museum.
Although in 1820 the first shipping line connected Wrightstown and Grenville, shipping along the Ottawa River and its tributaries continued to be hampered by a large number of thresholds, however, the construction of the Rido Canal and a number of dams and gateways allowed for a partial solution. Over the twentieth century, navigation on the Ottawa River was increasingly decaying, especially after the 1970 law banning forest alloy. However, there are charter cruises currently on the Ottawa River, and since 2011 Ottawa and two stations in Gatino have been connected by river taxi. In the summer, the Rido Canal is also used for boat trips.
Cyclists and pedestrians
The city planning is very friendly to pedestrians and cyclists. There are many cycling and walking paths. The Ottawa City Council operates about 1,600 km of pavements and 340 km of cycle paths along the roads and streets. Pedestrians, however, are strictly prohibited from using sidewalks along the Transitway - these sidewalks are for official use only.
In Ottawa and Gatino since 2011 there is a network of hourly biking Bixi. The 2009 pilot project included 50 bicycles and four rental stations, in May 2011 the system officially launched with 100 bicycles and 10 stations, and the following year 150 bicycles and 15 new stations in Ottawa and Gatino were added. The stations are mainly concentrated in the central areas of the city, with the aim of being used by tourists, but long-term passes are also sold. In addition, for tourists and cyclists there are specialized routes along the rivers Ottawa (31 km) and Rido and along the Rido Canal, near the Central Experimental Farm, Lake Limi in Halle and in the western part of the Green Belt.
Culture and society
Architecture and parks
Monuments of architecture
Like most capitals in the Western Hemisphere, Ottawa is a young city with few architectural monuments. The oldest building in the city is the Baitown Museum, located in a former military warehouse built in 1826, near the lower locks of the Rido Canal. Historical value is given to the houses of the mid-19th century on St. Patrick Street, on the eastern side of the canal. These include the Notre-Dame Basilica (1842-1863), which was built in the neoclassical style and later built in the neo-Gothic style, and the houses belonging to the carpenter and the doctor.
A number of old buildings are located in one of the first areas of Ottawa's Sandy Hill. They include the homes of one of the Canadian Confederation's fathers, William McDougall, Ottawa Mayor George Byron Lyon-Fellowes, and Canadian Supreme Court founder Telefor Fournier, as well as Canadian Prime Ministers Wilfrid Lorieu and McKenzie K. ing.
Several churches and cathedrals in Ottawa are of historic interest: St. Brigida Church (late nineteenth century, now the Irish-Canadian Heritage Center), the Neo-Gothic Church of St. Alban's martyr (third quarter of nineteenth century), and the Neo-Gothic United Church of the Holy Trinity in the former township of Ru ido. The neo-Gothic style, popular in the 19th century in Canada, is also represented by the Parliament complex (architects T. Fuller, C. Jones; burned in 1916, rebuilt in 1919-1927, architects J. Pearson, O. Marshan).
The House of Langeven, the residence of the Prime Minister of Canada (1880s, architect Thomas Fuller), is also one of Ottawa's historical monuments; Carlton County's first Italian-style prison, built in the 1860s, is now a youth hostel; and the Confederation building, built in the Chateau style in the first third of the 20th century west of Parliament.
Unlike the sophisticated neo-Gothic and neo-classical architecture of public buildings, Ottawa's residential buildings remained predominantly wooden until the late 1960s. The brick houses began to be built in the 1870s. The most popular was simple Italian style with a double-walled roof, and in richer areas such as Sendertown and Sandy Hill, the so-called Queen Anna style (English Baroque), with an uneven roof line, large highways urinary fireplace tubes, often with turtles or erkers and carved verandas.
With the rise in the price of land at the beginning of the twentieth century, the epoch of big mansions was a thing of the past, replaced by houses of more modest sizes, often in the form of townhouses; The most common feature of residential houses of this period was a two-fold attic roof. In this style Glib and South Ottawa were built, while in the affluent Rockliffe was dominated by a false-judor style, a kindred European fahver. In the first half of the 20th century, the residential architecture of Ottawa is being replaced by the styles of a bosar with its classical columns, frontones and antablections; an ascetically simple prairie style with its hanging carnival and no jewelry, the main apologetic of which in Canada was the student F. L. Wright Francis Sullivan; and eclectic ar deco, which primarily characterizes second-quarter-century apartment buildings.
Ottawa's edges and suburbs have been built and continue to be built primarily by cottages and farm houses of model models (often two- and three-story). The high-rise houses, which began to appear in 1962, were first of the same type, with bare brick and concrete facades, but gradually became more diverse in style. The highest residential building in Ottawa (and the third highest building in the Canadian capital) is the 33-story Minto Metropole, built in 2004, with a height of 108 m; It is also planned to build 42-story and 36-story apartment skyscrapers.
A monumental sculpture
A monumental sculpture in Ottawa is presented in a number of public parks, squares and streets in the city center. The most famous piece of the monumental sculpture is Canada's National Military Memorial, also known as Response, located on the Confederation Square next to the Parliamentary Hill. The memorial memorializes the memory of Canadians who died on the fronts of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Korean War. In 2000, the tomb of the Unknown Soldier became part of the memorial complex, and in 2006, the Memorial of Valiants Memorial was opened in the northern part of the Confederation Square, memorializing the memory of 14 people , leaving a mark on Canada's military history. In the adjacent park of the Confederation, monuments have been erected to Canadian indigenous fighters, Canadian volunteers killed in the Anglo-Burian war and Canadians killed in the Korean War. Other memorials include the police (on Parliamentary Hill), the Canadian Royal Navy (on the banks of the Ottawa River near the Portage Bridge), the British Commonwealth Air Force, humanitarian aid workers (both on the Sussex Drive) and the Canadian peacekeeping force ( near the Majors Hill Park). In 2012, a national memorial for firemen was opened on the Lebreton-Fletts.
In addition to the Police Memorial, the Parliamentary Hill monument includes statues of Queen Victoria and Elizabeth II, monuments to a number of Canadian Confederation fathers and Heads of Government of Canada, and statues of the Famous Five, women's rights movement.
In the center of Ottawa there are a number of other monuments and sculptural compositions. A statue of the city's founder, Colonel Bai, was erected in Majors Hill Park, and a monument to New France's first governor, Samuel de Champlin, was erected in Nepin Point, near the National Gallery of Canada. In bronze is captured the famous musician Oscar Peterson (near the National Center of Arts) and the inspirer of fight against cancer Terry Fox. One of Ottawa's most famous art sculptures, the nine-meter spider "Maman", was exhibited in front of the National Gallery of Canada (see the illustration in Museums and Art Galleries). Several other well-known sculptures are located on Wellington Street and on the pedestrianized Sparks Street.
Ottawa's municipal borders contain more than 1,000 parks and 650 outdoor green spaces (including baseball, cricket and football fields). The size of the parks ranges from the Green Belt, a huge forest area covering the city, to very small local squares. The website of the National Capital Commission allocates the Commissioner's park with its tulip beds from the total number of parks; Confederate Park, Majors Hill Park, and the Lebreton Fletts, the venue for major festive events on the ontario side of the river, and Jacques Cartier Park, which is also the site of the Gatino; the Hogs Back, Rido Falls and Nepin Point natural and panoramic parks, as well as the large public parks of Lake Limi and Vincent Massie Park. The list of national historical sites includes a small (one acre) fenced-in park of European type Maplown in the Westborough Village area, which was previously part of the homogeneous estate.
Museums and art galleries
Official websites of the National Capital Commission and the City Hall of Ottawa include among the national museums offered for visitors by city residents and tourists:
- Canadian Museum of Nature (built in 1905 as the Victoria Memorial Museum, architect D. Yart)
- Canadian Military Museum
- Canadian Museum of Science and Technology
- Canadian Museum of Agriculture
- Canadian Air and Space Museum
- National Gallery of Canada with European and Canadian Art Collection and Canadian Museum of Modern Photography
- Bank of Canada Currency Museum
- The Royal Canadian mint, which is also a museum
- The National Center for the Arts, also a concert and theater complex
The Canadian Museum of History (formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization), located in nearby Gatino, is also traditionally part of the Ottawa museum system. The Museum of History houses two more museum exhibitions at the national level, the Canadian Postal Museum and the Canadian Children's Museum. A family ticket is specially provided for tourists, which allows to visit 9 museums (including the museum of history, nature, science and technology, agriculture, aviation and space, the military museum, the National Gallery, the mint and the house-museum of Vilfried Lorieux) and 20% discount on Visit the National Art Center within a week. Ticket prices at the beginning of 2012 were $35 per person or $85 per family. The city's residents can order three- and seven-day free passes to visit both the national museums and the Ottawa Museum Network (see below) through the Ottawa Public Library.
Of particular interest are the local museums, which are organized under the auspices of the Ottawa Museum Network. These include the Baitown Museum, located at the lower locks of the Rido Canal in a building built by Thomas McKay; Billings Manor Museum is Ottawa's oldest preserved residential house; the Pinis Point estate, built in the first quarter of the 19th century on the bank of the Ottawa River west of the city center; "Diefenbunker" is a museum of the Cold War, which was transformed into a government underground shelter in the outskirts of Ottawa Carpe; Vanje Park Museum with North America's only sugar clay plantation; built in the 1960s by Watson mill on the Rido River in the southern Manotik district; and other objects. Another site recommended on the National Capital Commission website is the house museum of Canada's tenth prime minister, U.L. Mackenzie King, located in the heart of Gatino Park.
Theaters and concert halls
The main theater and concert platform of Ottawa since 1969 is the National Center of Arts. The main hall of the complex — Southam Hall — is designed for more than 2300 spectators, and the theater hall has 897 audience seats. English and French drama theaters, ballet theater and the symphonic Orchestra of the National Center of Arts, which has been headed by the famous musician Pinhas Zuckerman since 1998, are taking place on the stages of the National Center of Arts. The center also provides scenes for performances of variety and Broadway musicals, as well as festival events. The National Center for Arts also performed the Ottoman Opera Company Opera Lira, which closed in 2015.
The popular drama theaters in Ottawa include:
- Ottawa Little Theatre is Canada's oldest active theater company since 1913. The amateur troupe of the theater performs eight performances each year (September to May), each of which holds 18 productions; During the summer season, the theater hall with a capacity of 510 spectators is given to performances of musicals. Under the aegis of the Small Theater, a popular Canadian playwright competition is held, in which single-act plays are involved
- The Great Canadian Theatre Company, founded in 1975 by students and lecturers at Carlton University, and has been a regular performer at Irving Greenberg Theater Center in Otta since 2007 Hintonberg district (262 seats)
Other concert and theater venues include the Canadien Thayer Center sports complex, which hosts the largest shows, the Center Point Theater in Nepal, with a capacity of about 1,000 spectators, and the Camberland City Theater. Located in the city center in the old courthouse, Arts Court, the city's official cultural center, provides space for the theater, city art gallery, dance and music studios, including Le Groupe Dance Lab, the city's leading modern dance collective. The Canata Theater plays at the House of Drama Ron Maslin Playhouse, and the stage at the French-speaking Theater Art Center in Ottawa, La Nouvelle Scène, located in the Bayuor Market area D, there are four theater troupes. The Gladstone theater, which occupies the former premises of the Grand Canadian Theater Company, opened in 2008. In the 2011/2012 season, three groups presented eight different plays at the Gladstone Theater.
Less formal music venues that provide stage play to rock bands and jazz bandam include numerous clubs, restaurants and pubs in the Lower Town. Ottawa's Department of Tourism has identified among them the Bayward Fat Tuesday’s market area, where the piano "duels" take place, and Zaphod Beeblebrox, as well as Barrymore’s Music Hall on Bank Street. Le Petit Chicago and Café aux 4 jeudis on the Promenade du Portaž on the Quebec side of the river are also recommended places where live concerts take place. Since 2003, Ottawa has had a number of successful authors and performers, including Juno winners for MonkeyJunk's best blues album and the popular country country band Fiftymen, but the development of local music makes it difficult for most clubs to be uninterested in starters and collectors Vasi, and many have given up live music altogether.
The Ottawa Public Library, founded in 1906 with a donation from the American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, offers readers material not only in Canada's national languages, but also in other languages, including Russian. The library, which has 2.4 million books and other media collections, provides services in more than 30 offices throughout the city. In addition to the permanent branches, the public library also has two "bookmobile" buses serving more than 20 districts throughout the city. Each such area is visited once a week. Buses provide readers with the materials ordered via the Internet, and also have their own collection of books, magazines, audio and video materials. Readers can take and hand out books in any of the departments; The library's website also provides direct downloads of e-books, audiobooks and music. In the library, any reader can obtain a card that allows the use of funds also of a number of scientific libraries (in particular, the University of Ottawa), but such a card is issued not automatically, but only on request of the reader. The library's clients (residents of Ottawa and the suburbs) can also order free passes through it to most of Ottawa-Gatino's city museums and galleries, museums in the neighboring Renfro district, and in the winter to the Ottawa and Gatino ski clubs.
In addition to the Ottawa Public Library, the city has:
- Parliamentary Library on Parliamentary Hill
- National Library and Archive of Canada, collections of documents open to both researchers and the general public
- National Research Council of Canada Library
- libraries of higher education institutions
Ottawa, as the capital of Canada, has over time become a venue for a number of major national and international cultural festivals and events. For 60 years, the Canadian Tulip Festival has been held in Ottawa in mid-May. This tradition dates back to 1945, when the heir to the throne of the Netherlands, Princess Julian, donated a hundred thousand tulized bulbs to the Canadian capital as a token of her gratitude for the asylum granted during World War II. At present, the festival is planting more than a million tulip bulbs of 50 varieties, of which 300 thousand are concentrated in the Commissioner's Park, near Lake Dow. Since 1976, Ottawa has hosted the International Animation Film Festival, the second largest in the world, and the Canadian Dance Festival is held every two years.
During the summer season, the city hosts the International Jazz Festival (first held in 1980); Ottawa Bluff (Blues Festival); The International Chamber Music Festival is the world's largest two-week chamber festival with 120 concerts; and the Ottawa folk music festival (all three have been held since 1994). Since 2008, Ottawa has hosted the Rido Canal Festival dedicated to this UNESCO World Heritage Site. Summer festivals in the National Capital Region also include two major Gatino festivals, a fireworks festival called "The Sounds of Light," traditionally held in the Luck Casino- Limi, and the Mongolfier Festival, held annually since 1988, which falls to the last days of August and the first weekend of September.
Winterludia, a festival held in the second half of the winter (usually during the first three weekends of February) in the area of the Rido Canal, which is now one of the world's longest natural ice rinks, and in Jacques Cartier Park in Gatino, is considered a key winter event in Ottawa. Winterlude has been held since 1979 under the aegis of the National Capital Commission and includes snow and ice sculpture competitions and the largest winter amusement park in the North American continent.
Newspapers published in Ottawa are distributed throughout the National Capital Region. The largest daily newspapers in Ottawa-Gatino are the English-language The Ottawa Citizen and The Ottawa Sun and French-language Le Droit. Free Metro and 24 Hours newspapers are also available in the city. Weekly and monthly days in the National Capital Region include:
- Ottawa Business Journal
- The Hill Times, covering the activities of Parliament and the Government and other political topics
- Ottawa Star
- Capital Xtra! (LGBT community newspaper)
- local versions of Voir (a weekly magazine from Francophone regions of Canada) and The Epoch Times (an English-language newspaper by Falun Gong supporters in North America). Other immigrant publications in Ottawa are available in Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Italian.
The Ottawa XPress color edition was popular between 1993 and 2012where, in particular, cultural events were widely covered. The newspaper was closed in May 2012.
Some publications are published at the district level, and newspapers are also produced by the University of Ottawa, the University of Carlton and Algonquin College. Ottawa hosts a number of national publications.
Ottawa hosts the CTV Ottawa TV studio and CBC local news studio, as well as the offices of more than 35 radio stations that broadcast local news, music, sports reports and talk shows. The radio stations, like newspapers, have the city's three largest universities, several stations broadcast in French, and others broadcast music of certain styles (jazz, retro, ethnic).
The most developed sport in Ottawa is ice hockey. The Ottawa Senators team won the Stanley Cup, the most prestigious prize in professional hockey, 11 times from 1903 to 1927, before going bankrupt in 1934. The club was revived under the same name in 1992, and since then its best achievement has been to reach the Stanley Cup final in 2007. Ottawa clubs also participated in the two seasons of the World Hockey Association. Of Ottawa's amateur clubs, the most powerful are Ottawa Sixti Sevens, representing the satellite city of Gatino "Gatino Olimics". Both clubs are part of the Canadian Hockey League (KHL). "Sixti Sevens" are two-time holders of the Memorial Cup, the main KHL trophy. Ottawa's largest ice arena is the Canadien Tayyer Center sports complex, which was opened in 1996 and hosted the 2009 World Youth Championship along with the second largest ice palace in the Canadian capital, T-di Plays Arena. The Ti di Plais Arena also hosted the first Women's Hockey World Cup.
The Ottawa Raf Raiders Club represented the national capital in Canadian football tournaments for more than a hundred years - from 1876 to 1996. Since its inception, Raf Raiders has won the Gray Cup, the top trophy in Canadian football, nine times (most recently in 1976). Another club, Ottawa Renegades, represented the capital in the Canadian Football League from 2002 to 2005. These teams performed at the city's largest open stadium, the Ti di Plais Stadium, which also hosted the 2007 World Youth Football Championship matches. After the stadium reconstruction in 2014, the KFL team - Ottawa Redblacks, which already in 2016 became the holder of the Gray Cup, appeared again in the Canadian capital.
During the twentieth century, Ottawa had several professional baseball and football clubs. Women's football is popular in the city, the strongest representative of which until 2014 was the team "Ottawa Fury". Since 2014, Ottawa Fury, a men's football club, has joined the expanding North American Football League, North America's second-largest professional league of European football, and later joined the United Soccer League. In the absence of professional basketball, the leading basketball team in Ottawa are the Carlton Ravenz University, which from 2003 to 2020 has won 15 times the male student championship of Canada, having already by 2015 beaten the record of the tournament number of victories. There are also clubs for curling and golf.
Other major international sporting events include the 2001 IV Francophonie held by Ottawa and Gatino with the participation of 2,300 athletes from 51 countries and the region (in particular, Canada was represented by two national teams — Canada and Quebec itself).
Restaurants, bars, cafes
The informal "business card" of Ottawa is the network of high-quality caffeines Bridgehead, the first of which opened in the 1980s in Toronto, but later the franchise moved completely to Ottawa. Bridgehead Cafe has been repeatedly recognized as the result of the survey of XPress Weekly readers the best in Ottawa. Another popular local restaurant network, The Works, ranked first in the same survey in the category "best hamburger".
A large number of original restaurants are located on the Beyward market (according to the guide Frommer’s Ottawa, in this area there are the best restaurants in the city Canadian, Italian, Asian and mixed cuisine and the best bistro), along the way from north to south Elgin Street, Bank Street, Preston Street (Little Italy), and along the West-East Somerset Street (Chinatown), Sparks Street. Previously, its establishments were also known as Rido Street, but it gradually decayed, turning into a "sleeping" east of King Edward Avenue and acquiring a not too neat view to the west of it.
Science and education
Higher and vocational education
The percentage of the population aged 25-64 with higher education in Ottawa is significantly higher than in the province of Ontario as a whole. This is facilitated not only by the capital status as such, which attracts educated civil servants and employees of the high-tech sector, but also by the developed system of higher and special education. Ottawa has three universities:
- Ottawa University, founded in 1848 as Baitown College, and by the beginning of the 21st century offering more than 300 curricula in ten faculties, being the leading bilingual university in North America
- Carlton University, founded in 1942, provides over 200 training programs in 47 departments, including engineering, high technology, international relations, cinematography and journalism
- and the Catholic University of St. Paul, a member of the University of Ottawa in 1965 and composed of four faculties — canonical law, philosophical, humanitarian and theological
Several colleges provide post-school vocational education, among which Algonkin College is the first. This college offers the richest choice of courses among all Ontario colleges, and its students can get more than a hundred different specialties. Ottawa also has the largest Ontario Francophone College, which teaches 70 specialties, including medical, technological, tourism, management, communications and media. More than 100 students from around the world study at Ottawa's universities and colleges.
Ottawa hosts Canada's National Research Council, Canada's central research and development agency. In general, the Council's activities are market-oriented and link between research laboratories and the consumer. Also in Ottawa, Somerset Street, is the headquarters of the Royal Society of Canada, under the aegis of which the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Canada, with more than 2,000 members, is united. Canada's Atomic Energy Corporation may be recognized from specialized research institutes and organizations located in the Canadian capital; Agency for Defense Research and Technology; Canadian Polar Commission; Geological Survey of Canada; Central experimental farm; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (also affiliated with the University of Ottawa); and other institutions of the Ottawa and Carlton Universities.
In 1886, the Ottawa public school system consisted of only two secondary schools and several primary schools. In the next two decades, new schools were hardly built, but the old schools were built instead. The situation changed with the provincial law on compulsory school education, adopted in 1921, before the age of 16; In the decade following the adoption of the law, Ontario school enrolment increased by 26%, while the total number of school-age children increased by only 18%. The influx of new students resulted in a shortage of existing facilities and the construction of a number of new schools; Many of these schools, built in a typical manner during this period, work to this day. By 1927, even more schools were built than required, and the resulting Great Depression led to a freeze on further expansion of the educational complex. Between 1925 and 1935, there was even a slight reduction in the number of public schools in Ottawa, and it was only in the postwar years that the system began to expand again, first by incorporating neighboring towns and villages into Ottawa's municipal borders in 1949, when the number of schools and students almost doubled, and then as a result of a demographic explosion of 5- the 1960s. As a result, by 1969, there were 53 public schools in Ottawa (secondary, primary and transitional), with about 1,500 teachers working with 26,000 students. The growth in the number of students and schools continued; in addition to the natural population growth, the Ottawa administrative association and the 10 bordering municipalities were an important factor in 2001.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, all children in Ottawa, like all over Ontario, are required to attend school from 6 to 18 years old. All schools are formally divided into elementary (primary, 1-8, 6-13 years old) and senior (9-12, 13-18 years old). In addition, there are two groups of kindergarten, the oldest and the youngest, for children aged 5 and 4.
In addition, schools are divided into French and English. However, English-language schools are required to study French from grade 1 (basic curriculum is 100 minutes per week in kindergarten and 200 from grade 1 to grade 8); The "early immersion in French" program is a first-grade French language course, with a gradual transition to English to high school), while French-language instruction is conducted in English.
Schools in Ottawa are run by 4 bodies: Ottawa-Carlton School Administration (43,000 students in primary and 25,000 in high schools), East Ontario Public Francophone Schools Administration (12,400 students in 38 schools), Anglo- and French-speaking Catholic Schools Offices (respectively 8) 41,000 and 17,000 students). Among English-language junior high schools, Elmdale, Machmore, Hopwell Avenue, Devonshire, St. George, Broadview, Adrienne-Clarkson and Før have the highest ranking st avenue. Among French-speaking schools, the highest rankings are Ter de Gen, Michael Jean, Lamureux and Frankozhenes. Among English-language high schools in Ottawa, the highest ranking is given to the College of Lisgar (with a physical and mathematical profile), the Nipino, the Pia X Catholic School, the Kenterbury School (with a theater and art profile) and the Hilcrust School. Among French-speaking high schools, the highest ranking is given by the De La Sal school (profile: music, art, literature) and the Catholic College Samuel Gene.
In addition, there are a number of private schools in the city; The range of annual tuition fees in most private schools in Ottawa is between $8,000 and $20,000. The exceptions are Canada eSchool ($450 for each subject, online training) and Fern Hill School (a year's fee starting at $2,800), and Ashbury College, where the annual fee varies from $20,000 to $48,000 depending on the training regime.
Several community (mainly Islamic) schools receive little government support, but in general they are supported by community support and relatively low tuition fees (about $300-$400 per month). In 2009, one of them, Abraar School, was ranked among the top 6 % of Ontario schools. In 2013, it was overtaken by the Ahl-ul-Bait Islamic School.
Ottawa also has an English-language Adult High School, which enables those wishing to complete their secondary education in English, and a French-language school, Le Carrefour, for adults (École des adultes Le Carrefour), In addition to the secondary education diploma, it gives graduates a certificate of mastery of French as the second main language.
Health and Medicine
Bytown and Ottawa have experienced several epidemics of different scale and severity since their inception. This happened both in the nineteenth century, when the Rido Tif, brought along the rivers and canal, forced the Catholic Gray Sisters and Protestants who established the city's first permanent hospital in 1847, and later in four years smallpox came to the city twice, as in the next century. The largest epidemic, part of the global pandemic, was the influenza epidemic in 1918 (see the first half of the 20th century), and after that, the municipal-run centralized health system was already successfully managing new outbreaks of infectious diseases. At the turn of the century, a maternity home and several hospitals were launched in Ottawa to combat diseases such as smallpox and diphtheria; Later, many of them joined together in larger treatment centers, with more facilities and resources.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Ontario residents, including Ottawa, are entitled to provincial health insurance — OntarionHealth Insurance Plan, OHIP. A similar system exists in Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec, RAMQ, and its clients include the localities of the National Capital Region north of the Ottawa River. Both insurance programs were available after three months as a permanent resident or citizen, and new immigrants were encouraged to use private insurance companies before the expiry of that period.
Ottawa has several general hospitals: Ottawa Hospital (Ottawa Hospital, three branches in central and eastern parts of the city), Montfort Hospital, also east of the center, Queensway Carleton Hospital (Queensway-Carleton Hospital) , in western Ottawa) and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. CHEO). Ottawa Hospital and CHEO are among the largest employers in the city. The specialized medical centers of Ottawa include the Royal Ottawa Mental Health Center, the National Defense Medical Center, and the University of Ottawa's Heart Institute. Medical insurance is required for hospital and polyclinic services, otherwise a service charge is charged. Emergency calls are also charged (the bill is issued by the hospital where the patient is delivered).
There are direct-access clinics throughout the city (without prior recording and patient-assigned walk-in clinics, many of which belong to the general network of Appletree), community health centres, which provide centralized health services such as vaccinations ), as well as family doctors. The City Hall has a system of pre-hospital emergency medical care (Ottawa Paramedic Service), which provides first aid for heart attacks, strokes, injuries and respiratory difficulties in a total area of about 2,800 km². Defibrillation centers are located in many institutions, organizations and public places.
In addition, there is a system of free telephone medical advice on Ontario Telemedicine Network, also known as Telehealth.
Ottawa Public Health Department provides health support programs and other health and safety-related services to the public. The Department is overseen by the Health Board, which is composed of members of the municipal council and members of the public. Among the tasks assigned to the Department of Public Health are:
- promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing the development of chronic diseases (cardiovascular system, cancer and diabetes), smoking control and promoting healthy eating
- protection of the population against harmful effects of the environment (including sanitary inspections of public catering enterprises, public swimming pools, inspection of the quality of piped water and water opened for bathing of natural water bodies)
- prevention of epidemics and spread of infectious diseases (prevention of tuberculosis, influenza, vaccinations, control of wild animals)
- Injury reduction (including road safety training, safe public places for children and the elderly)
The overall crime rate in Ottawa is quite low. In the combined 2007 crime rate for Canadian cities, published by Macleans Magazine, Ottawa ranked 56th out of a hundred cities, with a crime rate of 29% below the national level; In 2010, the capital was ranked 74th with a crime rate of 26% below the national level. In a list of the world's 50 safest cities and capitals compiled in 2011 by Mercer, Ottawa ranked 17th with four other Canadian cities and Amsterdam. In a 2016 survey, 72% of Canadians called Ottawa a safe or very safe city, the best of all cities in the survey; The 2015 Severity Index puts Ottawa third on Canada's list of safest cities after Toronto and Quebec.
According to statistics published by the Ottawa Police Service, in 2011-2013, there were on average about 10 homicides, about 70 kidnappings and about 650 robberies in a city of almost a million people. On average, 1,120 cars were stolen in the year, about 1,000 marijuana-related offenses were recorded, and almost three times less cocaine. In 2014 and 2015, the frequency of most crimes continued to decline, but since 2016, both the total number of crimes and the level of violence reflecting the number of murders, attacks and rapes have increased.
|Ottawa crime statistics|
|Crime||2017||Per 100,000 population||Average 2014-2018||2018||Per 100,000 population|
|Offenses against the person|
|Attempts to kill||14||1.4||12||13||1.3|
|Crimes against property rights|
The twin cities of Ottawa include:
- Buenos Aires, Argentina (since 1998)
- Beijing, People's Republic of China (since 1999)
- Seoul, Republic of Korea
- Campobasso, Italy
- Catania, Italy
- Palermo, Italy
Ottawa in Art and Mass Culture
At the top of Canada's politics in Ottawa, Arthur Hayley's novel "On Your Heights" unfoldspublished in 1962.
- Iron Curtain, 1948 film.
- Operation Search, 1954 film.
- Road to Ottawa, A Passage to Ottawa, film 2002.
- Liverpool (film, 2012)
In Ottawa, such films as "Batman and Robin" (1997), "The Price of Fear" (2002), "The Way of vengeance" (2011), "Penthouse with a view to the north" were made. Zed Filmworks Film Studio is located in the city
- ↑ Hit according to the Dictionary of names of own on the portal Gramot.ru
- ↑ James Morrison. Algonquin History in the Ottawa River Watershed // A Background Study for Nomination of the Ottawa River Under the Canadian Heritage Rivers System. - QLF, 2005. P. 17-32.
- ↑ Nikonov V.A. Short Toponymic Dictionary. — M.: Thought, 1966. P. 316.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Ottawa (English). The Canadian Encyclopedia (25 October 2012). Archived June 8, 2019.
- ↑ Pospelov E. M. Geographic names of the world. Toponymic Dictionary / ed. P. A. Ageyeva. — 2nd edition, stereotype. — M.: Russian Dictionaries, Astral, ACT, 2002. P. 315. — ISBN 5-17-001389-2.
- ↑ 1 2 Keshen & St-Onge, 2001, p. 2.
- ↑ Martin & Burns, 1997, p. 21.
- ↑ 1 2 Aylen, Peter - an article from the Canadian Biographical Dictionary.
- ↑ 1 2 Shiners' Wars is an article from the Canadian Encyclopedia
- ↑ Martin & Burns, 1997, pp. 22-23.
- ↑ Young, 1995, p. 14.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 89 10 Frommer's Ottawa, 2011.
- ↑ History of Ottawa (not available). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Martin & Burns, 1997, p. 24.
- ↑ 1 2 Keshen & St-Onge, 2001, p. 3.
- ↑ Martin & Burns, 1997, p. 35.
- ↑ Young, 1995, pp. 20-24.
- ↑ 1 2 History of the Hill: Reconstruction, 1916-1965 (Unavailable link). A Treasure to Explore: Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Case date: July 5, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Marc St. Pierre. The Spanish Flu Epidemic of 1918 in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (English). Bytown.net (11 December 2002). Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ The deadliest disease in history (not available link). Maclean's (5 May 2009). Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ The Gouzenko Affair and the Cold War (English). Library and Archives Canada. Case date: July 5, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Martin & Burns, 1997, p. 28.
- ↑ Martin & Burns, 1997, p. 29.
- ↑ Canada's G8 Website (unreachable link). Case date: August 25, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Councillor says amalgamated Ottawa should split up. CBC (February 13, 2009). Case date: June 26, 2012. Archived June 27, 2012.
- ↑ County High Points of Ontario. Ontariohighpoints.com. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Standard Time Zones available). Natural Resources Canada lang=en. Case date: September 7, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
H. David Matthews, Mary Vincent. It's about TIME. Canadian Geographic (September/October 1998). Case date: September 7, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ A feeling of ownership. The Stittsville News (6 April 2004). Case date: September 4, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ www.coalitionottawa.ca — official website of the Ottawa Public Centers Coalition
- ↑ The National Capital Commission is an article from the Canadian encyclopedia.
- ↑ Schut & Wilson, 1987, pp. 12-13.
- ↑ Earthquake zones in Eastern Canada (E.) Natural Resources Canada (7 November 2011). Case date: July 19, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Earthquakes (not available link). Natural Resources Canada (2 January 2008). Case date: July 19, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Quake shakes Quebec, Ontario (English). CBC (23 June 2010). Case date: July 19, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Schut & Wilson, 1987, p. 17.
- ↑ Schut & Wilson, 1987, p. 20.
- ↑ 1 2 Nature and Heritage Conservation in the Greenbelt (not available). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Plants and animals (Unavailable link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Invasive species. City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012. (English)
- ↑ Mammals (English). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Christine Hanrahan. Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas, Region 24 (Ottawa) Report for 2005 (not available). The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club (5 November 2005). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Species at risk. City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Calgary is world's top eco-city (in English). CBC (26 May 2010). Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Michael Aubry. Ecology Ottawa wants cut crap. Ottawa Sun (7 March 2012). Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Schut & Wilson, 1987, p. 10.
- ↑ Larissa Cahute. Deja vu for this winter: Weather expert (Unavailable link). Ottawa Sun (17 November 2011). Case date: December 31, 2013. Archived January 1, 2014.
- ↑ 1 2 3 Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000: Ottawa MacDonald-Cartier International Airport (Ottawa MacDonald-Cartier International Airport). Environment Canada. Case date: July 18, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Tom Spears. The Great Ice Storm of 1998, by the numbers. Ottawa Citizen (January 4, 2018). Case date: July 29, 2019.
- ↑ Kate Porter. Floods prompt city to think fast on climate change. CBC (May 7, 2019). Case date: July 29, 2019.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 Symbols of Ottawa. City of Ottawa . Case date: July 29, 2019. Archived April 28, 2019.
- ↑ Municipalities in Canada with the largest and fastest-growing populations between 2011 and 2016. Statistics Canada (8 February 2017). Case date: February 9, 2017.
- ↑ 1 2 Focus on Geography Series, 2016 Census: Ottawa, City (CSD) - Ontario (English). Statistics Canada (26 January 2017). Case date: February 9, 2017.
- ↑ Ottawa's population blooms to 1M. CBC (June 11, 2019). Case date: July 29, 2019.
- ↑ 1 2 Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2016 censuses 2011 - 100% data. Statistics Canada (6 February 2017). Case date: February 9, 2017.
- ↑ 1 2 Census Profile: Ottawa, City, 2011 (English). Statistics Canada (29 May 2012). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ontario Population (in English). OntarioGen Web. Case date: August 23, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Population Change, City of Ottawa, 1901-2006 (unavailable link). City of Ottawa (December 2008). Case date: August 23, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Census Profile: Ottawa-Gatineau (Census metropolitan area), 2011 (English). Statistics Canada (29 May 2012). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Metropolitan Areas in Decreasing Order of 1996 Population, 1991 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data (EN). Statistics Canada. Case date: August 23, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 2001 Community Profiles: Ottawa-Hull, Ontario (English). Statistics Canada (2 January 2007). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 2006 Community Profiles: Ottawa, Ontario. Statistics Canada (13 March 2007). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Ottawa-Gatineau unemployment rate drops to 5.2%. Ottawa Business Journal (February 9, 2018). Case date: April 19, 2018.
- ↑ Neighbours (EN). Our Little Italy: Preston Street, Ottawa, Ontario. Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Historic church the heart of Ottawa’s Little Italy but food nourishes its soul (unreachable link). Truro Daily (16 July 2010). Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.Neighbourhoods (Unreachable link). Tourism Ottawa. Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ otOttawa-worldskills.org - official site of LASI World Skills Ottawa (English)
- ↑ www.ymcaywca.ca — official site of YMCA-YWCA National Capital Region
- ↑ Cic.ca - the official site of the Catholic Immigration Center (Cic.ca)
- ↑ ociso.org - official website Ottawa Community Immigrant Services Organization (EN)
- ↑ lassa.ca is the official website of the Lebanese and Arab Social Services Agency of Ottawa.
- ↑ 1 2 Cultural Associations/Organizations (Unavailable Link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ archotOttawa.ca is the official website of Ottawa's Roman Catholic Archdiocese.
- ↑ Ottawa.anglican.ca is the official website of the Anglican Diocese of Ottawa.
- ↑ 1 2 2001 Community Profiles: Ottawa, Ontario: Population. Statistics Canada (2 January 2007). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ www.antiochian.org — official website of the Ottawa Diocese of the Antioch Orthodox Church in North America (EN)
- ↑ Census Profile, 2016 Census — Ottawa, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Canada [Country]
- ↑ C. Jimeno, N. Bouchard, J. Martinovic, & D. Urquhart. Immigrants’ Economic Integration: Successes and (unreachable link). Social Planning Council of Ottawa (June 2009). Case date: June 26, 2012. Archived June 27, 2012.
- ↑ 2006 Community Profiles: Ottawa, Ontario: Visible minorities. Statistics Canada (13 March 2007). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Five Famous Ottawans (unreachable link). Ottawa Travel Guide (28 October 2011). Case date: August 18, 2012. Archived August 20, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Sports Hall of Fame Opens at City Hall (unavailable link). JimWatsonOttawa.ca (November 7, 2011). Case date: August 18, 2012. Archived August 20, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Embassy and Consulate links in Ottawa (EN). Ottawa Kiosk. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Your City Government (in Russian). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ New RCMP National Headquarters Building: The M. J. Nadon Government of Canada Building (not available link). RCMP (October 5, 2011). Case date: August 15, 2012. Archived August 17, 2012.
- ↑ RCMP Stables (English). Ottawa Kiosk. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Timeline (Unavailable Link). Ottawa Police Service (2010). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa police get new budget. CBC (March 7, 2011). Case date: August 15, 2012. Archived August 17, 2012.
- ↑ Operation INTERSECT hosts a Table Top Exercise on Friday, November 21, 2008 (not available link). Ottawa Police Service (19 November 2008). Case date: October 16, 2012. Archived October 20, 2012.
Operation INTERSECT wins the CACP/Motorola Award for Excellence in Emergency Preparedness 2009 (inaccessible link). Ottawa Police Service (10 August 2009). Case date: October 16, 2012. Archived October 20, 2012.
- ↑ Total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (In Millions of 2002$), Ottawa-Gatineau CMA, 1987-2008 (unavailable link). Infrastructure Services and Community Sustainability Department, City of Ottawa (December 2008). Case date: August 17, 2012. Archived August 18, 2012.
- ↑ Budget 2012 (Unavailable Link). City of Ottawa (30 November 2011). Case date: September 6, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Budget 2013: Operating and Capital Budget (in English). City of Ottawa (27 February 2013). Case date: October 15, 2013. (Unavailable link)
- ↑ Budget 2002: Highlights (unreachable link). City of Ottawa . Case date: September 6, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Major Employers in City of Ottawa, 2006 (not available link). Infrastructure Services and Community Sustainability Department, City of Ottawa (December 2008). Case date: August 17, 2012. Archived August 18, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Employment by Major Sector, Ottawa-Gatineau CMA (in 000's of jobs), 1995-2007 (not available link). Infrastructure Services and Community Sustainability Department, City of Ottawa (December 2008). Case date: August 17, 2012. Archived August 18, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa cheapest big city in Canada. CBC (July 13, 2011). Case date: August 17, 2012. Archived August 18, 2012.
Toronto The Most Expensive City In Canada: Mercer Report. Huffington Post (June 19, 2012). Case date: August 17, 2012. Archived August 18, 2012.
- ↑ Rajeshni Naidu-Ghelani. The World's Best Places to Live 2011: 14. Ottawa, Canada. CNBC (November 29, 2011). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Jackie Wallace. Urban preservation: How greening small spaces can strengthen community roots link). Canadian Geographic (September-October 2005). Case date: July 23, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Experimental Farm - Ottawa (not available link). All about Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Sean Silcoff, Iain Marlow. Canada's vanishing tech sector. Globe and Mail (July 7, 2012). Case date: August 17, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Shopping Centres (Ottawa Shopping Centres). Ottawa Kiosk. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Michael Prentice. Thinking outside the (cable) box link). Ottawa Business Journal (9 May 2011). Case date: August 18, 2012. Archived August 20, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 3 Ecology of Ottawa (unavailable link). Ecology Ottawa (October 2008). Case date: August 20, 2012. Archived August 20, 2012.
- ↑ Customer Value). Hydro Ottawa (2011). Case date: August 20, 2012. Archived August 20, 2012.
- ↑ Third Annual Progress Report towards the City’s 20% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Target, P. 9 (English). City of Ottawa (25 November 1999). Case date: September 7, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Enbridge to expand gas pipelines in GTA (not available link). EDI Weekly: Engineered Designer Insider (6 September 2012). Case date: September 7, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Customer Choice. Enbridge Gas Distribution. Case date: September 7, 2012.
- ↑ Clifford Scott. Ottawa's Street Railways (not available). The Historical Society of Ottawa. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa — 1946—1960 (inaccessible ). Bytown Museum (2010). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 345 6 7 Transportation Master Plan, November 2008. Beyond Ottawa 20/20: Planning for the future. Case date: July 29, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ 2015 Look-Ahead. Ottawa City. Archived September 25, 2015.
- ↑ LRT up and running in Ottawa (LRT up and running in Ottawa). CBC (14 September 2019). Case date: November 20, 2019.
- ↑ Stage 2. Ottawa City. Case date: July 20, 2019.
- ↑ Taxi licensing (unreachable link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Bandit taxis (not available link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ About OSTA available link). The Ottawa Student Transportation Authority (OSTA). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Train Station (not available). Ottawa Regional Society of Architects (2005). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Maria Cook. Cultural consequence: The top 500 buildings in Canada include 20 Ottawa structures chosen architects' institute (unavailable link). Ottawa Citizen (May 11, 2000). Case date: July 29, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ ottawacentralstation.com - official site of Ottawa Central Bus Station (Eng.)
- ↑ The Past: A Brief History of the Ottawa International Airport (EN). International Airport Authority, Ottawa. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa International Airport Celebrates 2011 - Another Outstanding Year (May 8, 2012). Case date: July 29, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Airport wins International Award. CBC (February 15, 2011). Case date: July 29, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Airports (Unavailable Link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived June 25, 2013.
- ↑ Steamboats and Canals on the Ottawa River // A Background Study for Nomination of the Ottawa River Under the Canadian Heritage Rivers System. - QLF Canada, 2005.
- ↑ Ottawa Tours & Sightseeing (unavailable link). Ottawa Tourism. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ New water taxi service links Ottawa — Gatineau — Casino (not available link). Let's go Ottawa (September 16, 2011). Case date: August 16, 2012. Archived August 17, 2012.
- ↑ capital.bixi.com - official site Capital BIXI (English)
- ↑ BIXI to ride into the capital (not available link). Ottawa Citizen/Citizen Cycle (May 20, 2011). Case date: August 16, 2012. Archived August 17, 2012.
- ↑ Graham Lanktree. More Bixi bikes rolling into Ottawa (not available link). Metro (April 12, 2012). Case date: August 16, 2012. Archived August 17, 2012.
- ↑ Cycling on the Capital’s Pathways (unreachable link). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Basilica National Historic Site of Canada (EN). Canada's Historic Places. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Clifford Scott. The Silent History of the Old Buildings (unavailable link). The Historical Society of Ottawa. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Laurier House National Historic Site of Canada(EN). Canada's Historic Places. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ St. Brigid's Church. Canada's Historic Places. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Church of St. Alban the Martyr. Canada's Historic Places. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Trinity United Church (Trinity United Church). Canada's Historic Places. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Carleton County Gaol (EN). Canada's Historic Places. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Confederation Building (EN). Canada's Historic Places. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Taylor, 1975, pp. 24-25.
- ↑ Taylor, 1975, pp. 27-28.
- ↑ Taylor, 1975, p. 31.
- ↑ 1 2 Ottawa: A Guide to Heritage Structures, 2000, p. 18.
- ↑ Kalman & Roaf, 1983, p. 151.
- ↑ Ottawa: A Guide to Heritage Structures, 2000, p. 19.
- ↑ Kalman & Roaf, 1983, p. 15.
- ↑ Buildings in Ottawa : Multi-story buildings. Emporis.com. Case date: September 5, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ The Response, National War Memorial (not available). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (not available link). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
The Valiants Memorial (not available link). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Statues (Unavailable Link). A Treasure to Explore: Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Case date: August 15, 2012. Archived August 17, 2012.
- ↑ Royal Canadian Navy Monument (link unavailable). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Ottawa Memorial (Commonwealth Air Force Memorial) (not available link). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Reflection (Monument to Canadian Aid Workers) (not available). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012. Reconciliation: The Peacekeeping Monument (not available). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Norman Fetterley and Ellen Mauro. Ottawa monu honors Canada's fallen firefighters (in Russian). CTV (9 September 2012). Case date: September 10, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Parks (Unavailable Link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Points of Interest (not available link). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Maplelawn & Gardens National Historic Site of Canada (English). Canada's Historic Places. Case date: April 23, 2013. Archived April 28, 2013.
- ↑ Canada’s Capital Museums Passport (EN)
- ↑ 1 2 Using your card: Ottawa Museum Pass (not available). Ottawa Public Library. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Graham Lanktree. Warm spell not so sweet for urban sugar shack (unreachable link). Metro Ottawa (28 March 2012). Case date: September 6, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Our museums (in English). Ottawa Museum Network. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ About the Mackenzie King Estate (not available link). National Capital Commission. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ National Arts Center (unreachable). Ottawa Tourism. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Cash crisis causes Opera Lyra to cease operations (in English). Ottawa Citizen (14 October 2015). Case date: November 5, 2015.
- ↑ Ottawa Little Theatre. Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia. Case date: July 30, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Great Canadian Theatre Company (Great Canadian Theatre Company). Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia. Case date: July 30, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Arts Court (Unavailable Reference). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived June 25, 2013.
- ↑ Kate Porter. Glamorous Gladstone theatre opens in Ottawa (English). CBC (12 September 2008). Case date: July 30, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Welcome to Gladstone (Unreachable). The Gladstone. Case date: July 30, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Entertainment & Nightlife). Tourism Ottawa. Case date: August 23, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ The Big Beat. Junofest brings dozens of bands to Ottawa clubs (not available link). Ottawa Citizen (March 23, 2012). Case date: August 23, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ The Big Beat. How has Ottawa’s music scene changed since the Junos were here in 2003? Musicians, etc., explain). Ottawa Citizen (March 29, 2012). Case date: August 23, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Stephen Haines. Lively times at the library // The Ottawa South Community Association Review. — 2006. — Vol. 31, no. 4. Archived September 3, 2014.
- ↑ Ottawa Public Library (not available link). MyOttawa.ru. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Public Library meets increasing customer demand available link). Ottawa Public Library (15 May 2012). Case date: July 21, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Bookmobile (English). Ottawa Public Library. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ www.collectionscanada.gc.ca — Official website of the National Library and Archives of Canada (English)
- ↑ NRC National Science Library (NRC). National Research Council Canada (26 March 2010). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Canadian Tulip Festival (not available link). Ottawa Tourism. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Chamberfest (not available). Ottawa Tourism. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Summer Music Festivals (inaccessible). Ottawa Tourism. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Rideau Canal Festival (not available link). Ottawa Tourism. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ www.feux.qc.ca - official site of the festival "Sounds of Light" (English) (French)
- ↑ History Archive copy of August 21, 2012 on the Wayback Machine on the website of the Mongolian Festival in Gatino
- ↑ Winterlude (unreachable link). Ottawa Tourism. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Winter Festivals is an article from the Canadian encyclopedia.
- ↑ 1 2 Ottawa Newspapers Guide (not available). OttawaStart.com. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Kate Heartfield. XPress was news for the Ottawa stayed up late link). Ottawa Citizen (May 22, 2012). Case date: August 2, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Media Guide (unavailable link). OttawaStart.com. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Radio Guide (unavailable link). OttawaStart.com. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ www.ottawa67s.com - the official website of Ottawa Sixti Sevens club (EN)
en.olympiquesdegatineau.ca — official site of "Gatino Olimpiks" club (English) (French)
- ↑ 2009 IIHF World U20 Championship, Canada (English). IIHF. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ IIHF World Women's Championships. IIHF. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ History (Unavailable Link). Canadian Football League. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Frank Clair Stadium, Lansdowne Park (English). Stadiums by Munsey & Suppes. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Dan Ralph. CFL picks: Expansion Redblacks in tough regular-season debut (in English). Toronto Star (2 July 2014). Case date: July 4, 2014.
- ↑ Redblacks pull off huge upset to win 104th Grey Cup in. CBC (November 27, 2016). Case date: November 27, 2016.
- ↑ NASL Ottawa Franchise Selects Ottawa Fury Football Club as its Name (English). NASL (26 February 2013). Case date: December 31, 2013.
- ↑ Ottawa Fury FC bolt NASL for growing United Soccer League (ENG). CBC News (25 October 2016). Case date: February 9, 2018.
- ↑ Edilson J. Silva. Mighty Carleton Ravens win improbable 15th U Sports basketball title (ENG). BasketballBuzz (10 March 2020). Case date: November 9, 2020.
- ↑ Top-seeded Ravens five-peat, Scrubb brothers enter record books (English). Ontario University Athletics (15 March 2015).
- ↑ jeux2001.ca — official site of the 2001 Francofon Games (french)
- ↑ Best of Ottawa 2009 (unavailable link). XPress (November 19, 2009). Case date: April 6, 2013. Archived April 14, 2013.
Best of 2007 online reader survey: Editorial and Results available link). XPress (November 15, 2007). Case date: April 6, 2013. Archived April 14, 2013.
Best of Ottawa 2011: Food & Drink (not available link). XPress (November 10, 2011). Case date: April 6, 2013. Archived April 14, 2013.
- ↑ 2006 Community Profiles: Ottawa, Ontario: Education. Statistics Canada (13 March 2007). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 345 6 Education (Unavailable link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Saint Paul University (inaccessible link). Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca — official website of the National Research Council of Canada
- ↑ www.rsc.ca - Official Website of the Royal Canadian Society
- ↑ uOttawa Research Centres and Institutes. University of Ottawa . Case date: August 28, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Affiliated Research Institutes (Affiliated Research Institutes). University of Ottawa . Case date: August 28, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Carleton University Research Centres (not available link). Carleton University. Archived August 6, 2013.
- ↑ Cummings & MacSkimming, 1971, p. 55.
- ↑ Cummings & MacSkimming, 1971, p. 59.
- ↑ Amos Tassonyi. Education Finance in the Slump: Ontario 1921—1939 (Unavailable Reference). Ontario Ministry of Finance, University of Calgary and Ryerson University (May 2011). Case date: September 6, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Cummings & MacSkimming, 1971, p. 86.
- ↑ Cummings & MacSkimming, 1971, pp. 79-80.
- ↑ English Program. Ottawa-Carleton District School Board. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ French Immersion. Ottawa-Carleton District School Board. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Elementary schools, 2012-2013 Rank (English). Fraser Institute School Rankings. Case date: August 24, 2014.
- ↑ Secondary schools, 2012-2013 Rank (English). Fraser Institute School Rankings. Case date: August 24, 2014.
- ↑ Ottawa Private Schools (Ottawa Private Schools). OurKids.net. Case date: August 22, 2012.
- ↑ Ahmed Khalil. Abraar School Performs Well on Province-Wide Testing (Unavailable Link). MAC Youth (21 August 2009). Case date: August 31, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Early Healthcare in Ottawa and Bytown: 1800-1850s (unreachable link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 26, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Medicine: 1870s-1940s (unreachable link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 26, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Medical insurance (unavailable link). Discover Canada (October 9, 2009). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 Finding healthcare (in English). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa Paramedic Service (Eng.). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ otn.ca — Official Website Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) (English)
- ↑ About Ottawa Public Health (unavailable link). City of Ottawa . Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ The Most Dangerous Cities in Canada: Overall crime score—by rank (not available link). Maclean's (4 March 2009). Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
Canada's most dangerous cities (unreachable link). Maclean's. Case date: August 24, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ 2011 Quality of living world city rankings - Mercer survey (not available link). Mercer (29 November 2011). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Jodi Hughes. Perception vs. reality: the breakdown on how safe Canadian cities really are (in Russian). Global News. Case date: March 17, 2017.
- ↑ 2012-2013 Crime Trends, City of Ottawa (English). Ottawa Police Service (28 May 2014). Case date: September 2, 2014.
- ↑ 2013-2014 Crime Trends, City of Ottawa (English). Ottawa Police Service (17 June 2015). Case date: January 21, 2016.
2014 - 2015 Crime Trends, City of Ottawa (English) (26 May 2016). Case date: March 17, 2017.
- ↑ Shaamini Yogaretnam. Crime rates, severity of violent crime up in Ottawa (EN). Ottawa Citizen (21 June 2017). Case date: November 10, 2017.
- ↑ Ryan Tumilty. Violent crime continues to rise in Ottawa. CBC (June 19, 2019). Case date: July 20, 2019.
- ↑ 2017 - 2018 Crime Trends, city of Ottawa (English) (20 May 2017). Case date: November 10, 2017.
- ↑ Apruebase Convenio Marco de Cooperacion No. 11/98 Celebrado Entre El G.C.B.A. y La Ciudad de Ottawa (Canada) (cf.) (not available ). Buenos Aires Ciudad (15 de octubre de 1998). Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Ottawa, Beijing Sign Sister Cities Agreement (Ottawa). People Daily (20 October 1999). Case date: August 2, 2012. Archived August 4, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (English). DBCity.com. Case date: August 22, 2012. Archived October 15, 2012.
- ↑ Arthur Hailey. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Case date: July 4, 2014.
- ↑ On-location vacations: Movies shot in Canada. Ottawa (unavailable link). MSN Entertainment. Case date: July 4, 2014. Archived January 15, 2014.
- ↑ Danielle Bell. http://www.ottawasun.com/2012/01/08/movie-stars-take-to-ottawa-streets. Ottawa Sun (8 January 2012). Case date: July 4, 2014.
- ↑ Ottawa expects record year for filmmaking. CBC (October 27, 2010). Case date: July 4, 2014.
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- canadascapital.gc.ca — official website of the National Capital Commission (EN)
- Ottawa - City Portal
- Ottawa Guide in Vikigide
- Photos of Ontario. Ottawa
- Photos of Ottawa
- Ottawa Photo Gallery
Russian Resources on Ottawa
- Russian Community of Ottawa
- Attractions and interesting places in Ottawa
- Russian Ottawa (not updated)